ARISTOBULUS I


ARISTOBULUS I
ARISTOBULUS I (Judah), king of Judea 104–103 B.C.E.; eldest son of john hyrcanus i . According to his father's will Aristobulus was to become high priest while his mother was to receive the throne. However, not content merely with the priestly office, Aristobulus seized the throne, cast his mother in prison where she died of hunger, and incarcerated all his brothers, except antigonus , for whom he had a particular affection. According to Josephus, Aristobulus later had Antigonus put to death, following an allegation that Antigonus was plotting against his life. According to Josephus (Ant., 11:301), Aristobulus was the first of the Hasmoneans to adopt the title of king. The statement of Strabo, however (26:2, 40), that Alexander Yannai was the first, is more trustworthy since on extant coins Aristobulus is designated only as high priest while Alexander Yannai is specifically designated as king. Josephus also states that Aristobulus called himself "Philhellene." This title was assumed by other Eastern rulers who adopted Hellenistic culture. It is surprising however that Aristobulus should do so since the attitude of the Hasmoneans to the "Hellenes" was far from cordial. It is possible that it is a misreading for Philadelphus, which is the name he assumed as a sign of his affection for his brother Antigonus. But the use of the term is indicative of the extent of Hellenistic influence in his court. Aristobulus followed both the cultural and military policies of his father. The statement of Josephus that he conquered part of the territory of the Itureans, forcibly converting them to Judaism, probably refers to the conquest of Upper Galilee by his father, John Hyrcanus, since the Itureans inhabited the Lebanon. In this campaign it is possible that Aristobulus was in command of his father's army. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jos., Ant., 13:301 ff.; Jos., Wars, 1:70 ff.; Klausner, Bayit Sheni, 3 (19502), 141 ff.; Schuerer, Gesch, 3 (19044), 273 ff.; Graetz, Gesch, 3 (19055), 118 ff.; Meyer, Ursp, 2 (1921), 274 n. 4; A. Schalit, Hordos ha-Melekh (19643), 107, 409 (esp. n. 183). (Abraham Schalit)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ARISTOBULUS II — (d. 49 B.C.E.), younger son of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra. Aristobulus, who was the last independent Hasmonean king, reigned from 67 to 63 B.C.E. Toward the end of Salome s reign, Aristobulus made himself the spokesman of the Sadducees …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ARISTOBULUS — (c. 35 B.C.E.–7 B.C.E.), son of herod and mariamne . Of Hasmonean lineage, both Aristobulus and his elder brother alexander were regarded as eventual heirs to the throne. The two were sent to Rome for their education. After his return to Judea,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Aristobulus II — was the Jewish High Priest and King of Judea, 66 BC to 63 BC, from the Hasmonean Dynasty.FamilyAristobulus was the younger son of Alexander Jannaeus, King and High Priest, and Alexandra Salome. After the death of Alexander in 76 BC, his widow… …   Wikipedia

  • Aristobulus IV — (31 BCE 7 BCE) was a prince of Judea from the , and was married to his cousin, Berenice, daughter of Costobar and Salome. He was the son of Herod the Great and his second wife, Mariamne I, the last of the Hasmoneans, and was thus a descendant of… …   Wikipedia

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  • Aristobulus [1] — Aristobulus, Judas, der erste makkabäische Fürst, der den Königstitel annahm (107–105 v. Chr.). – A. II., Enkel des vorigen, Sohn des Alexander Jannäus, stritt mit seinem Bruder Hyrkanus um den Thron; Pompejus, der damals in Asien schaltete,… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Aristobulus [2] — Aristobulus, ein jüd. Gelehrter im 2. Jahrh. nach Chr., alexandrinisch jüd. Philosoph, suchte zu beweisen, daß die Weisheit der Griechen aus dem A. Test. geschöpft sei; die neuere Kritik behauptet, der Name A. sei von einem spätern Juden seinem… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

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  • Aristobulus — For other people with this name, see Aristobulus (disambiguation) Aristobulus (reigned 104 103 BC) was a king of the Hebrew Hasmonean Dynasty, and the eldest of the five sons of King John Hyrcanus. He was the first of the Hasmonean rulers to call …   Wikipedia

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